Zero PDF

Zero Waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are zero PDF. The goal is for no trash to be sent to landfills, incinerators, or the ocean.

Författare: Robert Kaplan.

Una guida per la scoperta della cifra matematica, dalla sua prima comparsa 4000 anni fa, sulle tavolette d’argilla mesopotamiche, all’epoca contemporanea.

Zero Waste: The conservation of all resources by means of responsible production, consumption, reuse, and recovery of all products, packaging, and materials, without burning them, and without discharges to land, water, or air that threaten the environment or human health. Zero Waste refers to waste management and planning approaches which emphasize waste prevention as opposed to end-of-pipe waste management. It is a whole systems approach that aims for a massive change in the way materials flow through society, resulting in no waste. Advocates expect that government regulation is needed to influence industrial choices over product and packaging design, manufacturing processes, and material selection.

Advocates say eliminating waste decreases pollution, and can also reduce costs due to the reduced need for raw materials. Cradle-to-grave is in direct contrast to cradle-to-cradle. Cradle-to-cradle focuses on designing industrial systems so that materials flow in closed loop cycles which mean that waste is minimized, and waste products can be recycled and reused. Cradle-to-cradle simply goes beyond dealing with issues of waste after it has been created, by addressing problems at the source and by re-defining problems by focusing on design. The cradle-to-cradle framework has evolved steadily from theory to practice.

In the industrial sector, it is creating a new notion of materials and material flows. It has designed an upholstery fabric, Climatex Lifecycle, which is a blend of pesticide- and residue-free wool and organically grown ramie, dyed and processed entirely with nontoxic chemicals. The spread of industrialization worldwide has been accompanied by a large increase in waste production. In 2012 the World Bank stated that 1.

3billion tonnes of municipal waste was produced by urban populations and estimates that that number will reach 2. The increase in solid waste production increase the need for landfills. There is a growing global population that is faced with limited resources from the environment. To relieve the pressures placed on the finite resources available it has become more important to prevent waste. To achieve zero waste, waste management has to move from a linear system to being more cyclical so that materials, products and substances are used as efficiently as possible. Zero waste promotes not only reuse and recycling, but, more importantly, it promotes prevention and product designs that consider the entire product life cycle.

Zero waste designs strive for reduced materials use, use of recycled materials, use of more benign materials, longer product lives, reparability, and ease of disassembly at end of life. Since waste is a sign of inefficiency, the reduction of waste can reduce costs. A zero waste strategy improves upon production processes and improving environmental prevention strategies which can lead to take larger, more innovative steps. A zero waste strategy supports all three of the generally accepted goals of sustainability – economic well-being, environmental protection, and social well-being. A zero waste strategy would use far fewer new raw materials and send no waste materials to landfills.

Any material waste would either return as reusable or recycled materials or would be suitable for use as compost. A major issue with landfills is hydrogen sulfide, which is released during the natural decay of waste. Studies have shown a positive association between increased lung cancer mortality rates and increased morbidity and mortality related to respiratory disease and hydrogen sulfide exposure. These studies also showed that the hydrogen sulfide exposure increased with proximity to the landfill. Household chemicals and prescription drugs are increasingly being found in large quantities in the leachate from landfills. This is causing concern about the ability of landfills to contain these materials, and the possibility of these chemicals and drugs making their way into the ground water and the surrounding environment. Zero waste promotes a circular material flow that allows materials to be used over and over, reducing the need for landfill space.