The Phoenix PDF

PRUs would kill or capture suspected VC members, as well as civilians who were thought to have information on VC activities. Many of these people were taken to interrogation centers and were tortured in an the Phoenix PDF to gain intelligence on VC activities in the area.

Författare: Rebecca Fox.

The program was in operation between 1965 and 1972, and similar efforts existed both before and after that period. By 1972, Phoenix operatives had “neutralized” 81,740 suspected VC operatives, informants and supporters, of whom between 26,000 and 41,000 were killed. The interrogation centers and PRUs were developed by the CIA’s Saigon station chief Peer de Silva. In 1967 all “pacification” efforts by the United States had come under the authority of the Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support, or CORDS. CORDS had many different programs within it, including the creation of a peasant militia which by 1971 had a strength of about 500,000.

Officially, Phoenix operations continued until December 1972, although certain aspects continued until the fall of Saigon in 1975. The chief aspect of the Phoenix Program was the collection of intelligence information. VC members would then be captured, converted, or killed. Emphasis for the enforcement of the operation was placed on local government militia and police forces, rather than the military, as the main operational arm of the program. The Phoenix Program took place under special laws that allowed the arrest and prosecution of suspected communists. To avoid abuses such as phony accusations for personal reasons, or to rein in overzealous officials who might not be diligent enough in pursuing evidence before making arrests, the laws required three separate sources of evidence to convict an individual targeted for neutralization.

Heavy-handed operations—such as random cordons and searches, large-scale and lengthy detentions of innocent civilians, and excessive use of firepower—had a negative effect on the civilian population. Intelligence derived from interrogations was often used to carry out “search and destroy” missions aimed at finding and killing VC members. The use of the insertion of the 6-inch dowel into the canal of one of my detainee’s ears, and the tapping through the brain until dead. The reported torture was carried out by South Vietnamese forces with the CIA and special forces playing a supervisory role. Phoenix operations often aimed to assassinate targets, or resulted in their deaths through other means. PRU units often anticipated resistance in disputed areas, and often operated on a shoot-first basis. Innocent civilians were also sometimes killed.

The problem was, how do you find the people on the blacklist? It’s not like you had their address and telephone number. The normal procedure would be to go into a village and just grab someone and say, “Where’s Nguyen so-and-so? Half the time the people were so afraid they would not say anything. Between 1968 and 1972, Phoenix “neutralized” 81,740 people suspected of VC membership, of whom 26,369 were killed. A significant number of VC were killed, and between 1969 and 1971 the program was quite successful in destroying VC infrastructure in many important areas.

By 1970, communist plans repeatedly emphasized attacking the government’s pacification program and specifically targeted Phoenix officials. The Phoenix Program was not generally known during most of the time it was operational to either the American public or American officials in Washington. There was eventually a series of U. In 1971, in the final day of hearing on “U.

Assistance Programs in Vietnam”, a former serviceman named K. Milton Osborn described the Phoenix Program as a “sterile depersonalized murder program. Adams, in an interview with CBC News, talked about the program as basically an assassination program that also included torture. In many instances, rival Vietnamese would report their enemies as “VC” in order to get U.